Annex A - Group Research Proposal

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Group Project Proposal (Science)
Names: Ian Tee, Raynor Fong, Justin Chew, Keene Sin
Class: S2-08
Group Reference: G

1. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of chrysanthemum

[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene

[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore

[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households


2. Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:

Title: Investigation on the magnetic field in a solenoid with different voltages

A. Question being addressed

A magnetic field is the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field.Magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin.In special relativity, electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic tensor; the split of this tensor into electric and magnetic fields depends on the relative velocity of the observer and charge.In everyday life, magnetic fields are most often encountered as a force created by permanent magnets, which pull on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, cobalt, or nickel and attract or repel other magnets. Magnetic fields are widely used throughout modern technology, particularly in electrical engineering and electromechanics. The Earth produces its own magnetic field, which is important in navigation, and it guards Earth's atmosphere from solar wind. Rotating magnetic fields are used in both electric motors and generators. Magnetic forces give information about the charge carriers in a material through the Hall effect. The interaction of magnetic fields in electric devices such as transformers is studied in the discipline of magnetic circuits.(Wikipedia,2015a)
A volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points.It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it.(Wikipedia,2015b)

The motion of an electric charge producing a magnetic field is an essential concept in understanding magnetism. The magnetic moment of an atom can be the result of the electron's spin, which is the electron orbital motion and a change in the orbital motion of the electrons caused by an applied magnetic field.(NDE resources center(2015))

The solenoid is like a bar magnet which has poles. One end is the north pole, and the other is the south pole.

Magnetic fields are everywhere. There are all types of waveforms, intensities, and frequencies. Magnetic fields bathe the whole Earth and have significant effects on living organisms. Magnetic fields cannot be felt, sensed, or seen like patterns of light, or heard like sounds, so their biological effects have largely gone unnoticed. But there is a lot to learn about magnetism and its relationship to the whole Earth, the Sun, the planets, and all the stars and galaxies.

Not a long time, but that is because sensitive instruments for measuring magnetic fields have only been around that long.

There are special magnetic observatories located all over the Earth and that there have been dedicated scientists that have devoted their entire careers to just making careful measurements of Earth’s magnetic field, and recording them faithfully year after year so that other people can make use of them. And these scientists, now, and two hundred years ago, had no inkling of the importance of magnetism on living things.

Even today most scientists studying magnetism in industry, in astronomical observatories, and government laboratories do not realize the powerful influences that magnetic fields have on human behavior; they are mostly concerned about the possible effects of magnetic fields on communications instruments.

Former President Reagan had one of the satellites which was designed to study the Sun shot down for target practice! This was ironic indeed, since Solar activity appears to be one of the most salient factors in triggering wars.As you read these words, satellites are floating overhead measuring magnetic fields of Earth. For instance there satellites called GOES (Geosynchronous Orbiting Earth Satellites) which have provided continuous magnetometer data since July l971. Usually two GOES satellites operate simultaneously, but at this time there is only one. They float about 28,000 miles out in space, their speed exactly synchronized with Earth’s rotation rate so that they don’t appear to move at all. They are usually located at 75° and 135° west longitude. Their distance from Earth allows continuous day and night observation of the Sun.

The magnetic sensors on these satellites consist of a pair of little spinning coils. When a coil of wire moves in a magnetic field the electrons in the moving wires are pushed to and fro. Since they cannot escape from the wires, they produce what we call an electric current. This tiny current is detected by amplifiers in the satellite and the resultant voltages gives a continuous measure of the intensity of Earth’s magnetic field.

The measurements provide the field intensity in three directions: parallel to Earth’s surface in a north—south direction, parallel to Earth’s surface in the east—west direction and in the up—down or in—out direction. Field strength changes as small as 2 millionths of a gauss can be measured by these sensors. Incredible as it seems, human beings may be sensitive to changes of this magnitude.

The GOES satellites also have detectors for protons and electrons emitted by the Sun (the solar wind). It’s important to detect and measure the flow of these particles because they can interfere with satellite instruments, or injure astronauts or passengers in high—altitude aircraft. They can also influence the weather and cause magnetic storms.

X—rays from the Sun are also measured by an ion chamber placed aboard the GOES satellites. X—rays often indicate the start of solar flares which tells us that electrons and protons will be whizzing by in a day or two.

Apparently all the stars have magnetic fields, some of them are more than 1,000 times as strong as the Sun’s. Could these distant magnetic fields affect life on Earth? It may be no coincidence that the stars known as PULSARS have strong magnetic fields and most of these PULSARS pulse at frequencies in the brain wave range from 4 to 30 Hz. Since we can detect magnetic fields with our instruments, perhaps people can detect them too. After all, we are the most complex, most sensitive, ‘machines’ around.(Dr. Buryl Payne,2015)


B. Hypothesis

Variables:

Independent Variables: The voltage produced in the generator

Dependent Variables: The magnetic field in the solenoid

Constants: The position measured,same solenoide,



Hypothesis:

The higher the voltage, the more magnetic field it produces.

The middle of the solenoid will have the most amount of magnetic field.


C. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipment list:


AC battery 7V

Signal Generator

Wires

Rod

Solenoid

Data logger with magnetic field sensor
















































































































• Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection


How to use magnetic field sensor:


The magnetic field sensor will produce a voltage that will linear with magnetic field that measures the magnetic field which is perpendicular to the white dot on the end of the sensor tip.


The reading is positive when the white dot on the sensor is facing the magnetic south pole.


The switch on the sensor shaft is used to select the range. The 6.4 mT is used to measure relatively strong magnetic fields around permanent magnets and electromagnets. Each volt represents 32 gauss.The range of the sensor is ±64 gauss.






The 0.3 mT range is used mainly to measure the magnetic field of the Earth and very weak fields. It can be used for other magnets, but the sensor must remain in one position so that the reading is not affected by the background field of the Earth. Each volt represents 1.6 gauss. The range of the sensor is ±3.2 gauss.






If the sensor tube is held vertically with the tip horizontal, and rotated until the maximum voltage is found, the tip with the white dot will point to magnetic north. The magnetic inclination in your area can be found by holding the tube so that the white dot is facing north, and rotating the sensor end of the tube down until the voltage reaches a maximum. The angle of the tip from vertical is the magnetic inclination.






Note that the north pole of a freely suspended magnet points north, since the magnetic pole of the Earth in the northern hemisphere is a south magnetic pole.(Magnetic field sensor manual,2015)
















Experiment setup


Fig. 1: This is the setup of our experiment























Steps


[If cannot reduce voltage, use Resistors.Equation for Resistors is 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2)]


Assemble the circuit as shown in the figure.


Experiment 1:


Turn the generator to 3V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Experiment 2:


Turn the generator to 4.5V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Experiment 3:


Turn the generator to 6V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Experiment 4:


Turn the generator to 7.5V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Experiment 5:


Turn the generator to 9V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Experiment 6:


Turn the generator to 12V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Experiment 7:


Turn the generator to 15V.


Place the magnetic field sensor at every 2cm.


Record the magnetic field on the Data logger and on a graph.


Packing Up:


Off the plug before taking out the wires.


Remove any wires


Keep them in the cupboard.




























































• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.














Precautions


Why?


What To do?



Check if the wire is secured properly


You will get electrocuted


Check if the wire is secured before starting the experiment



Do not touch anything during experiment


You will get electrocuted


Stand far away when the experiment begins



Turn off the generator when setting up the experiment.


The rings will fly out even before we have begun.


Keep the circuit open before we start the experiment.



Remove any cards that store information.


Information such as money may be erased when it is near the electromagnet.


Put our wallet outside the lab with our bags.



Always have a teacher nearby.


Something might go wrong such as fire and the teacher have to help us.


Ask a teacher to be with us throughout the experiments.



Sleep early before the day


You will not concentrate and will make mistakes that cause lifes


Sleep early







• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses






We will take two test result for the experiment to find the average of the magnetic field.




























































D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.






Website Sources


Wikipedia(2015a).Magnetic field. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_field


Wikipedia(2015b).Volts. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volt


NDE resources center(2015).Creation of magnetic field.(n.d). Retrieved February 16, 2015, from https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/HighSchool/Magnetism/fieldcreation.htm


Dr. Buryl Payne(2015).THE IMPORTANCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS.(n.d). Retrieved February 23, 2015, from http://www.buryl.com/magnetic_therapy.htm


Cliffsnote(2015)Houghton Mifflin Harcourt."How Do Magnetic Fields Work?" How Do Magnetic Fields Work? Retrieved 15 Jan. 2015. From <http://www.cliffsnotes.com/cliffsnotes/sciences/how-do-magnetic-fields-work>.






Book Sources





Magnetic field sensor manual(2015).(n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2015

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