### Annex B - Research Data

A magnetic field is the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field.Magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin.In special relativity, electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic tensor; the split of this tensor into electric and magnetic fields depends on the relative velocity of the observer and charge.In everyday life, magnetic fields are most often encountered as a force created by permanent magnets, which pull on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, cobalt, or nickel and attract or repel other magnets. Magnetic fields are widely used throughout modern technology, particularly in electrical engineering and electromechanics. The Earth produces its own magnetic field, which is important in navigation, and it guards Earth's atmosphere from solar wind. Rotating magnetic fields are used in both electric motors and generators. Magnetic forces give information about the charge carriers in a material through the Hall effect. The interaction of magnetic fields in electric devices such as transformers is studied in the discipline of magnetic circuits. (Wikipedia, 2015a)

A volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points.It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. (Wikipedia, 2015b)

The motion of an electric charge producing a magnetic field is an essential concept in understanding magnetism. The magnetic moment of an atom can be the result of the electron's spin, which is the electron orbital motion and a change in the orbital motion of the electrons caused by an applied magnetic field. (NDE resources center, 2015)

Magnetic fields are everywhere. There are all types of waveforms, intensities, and frequencies. Magnetic fields bathe the whole Earth and have significant effects on living organisms. Magnetic fields cannot be felt, sensed, or seen like patterns of light, or heard like sounds, so their biological effects have largely gone unnoticed. But there is a lot to learn about magnetism and its relationship to the whole Earth, the Sun, the planets, and all the stars and galaxies.

There are special magnetic observatories located all over the Earth and that there have been dedicated scientists that have devoted their entire careers to just making careful measurements of Earth’s magnetic field, and recording them faithfully year after year so that other people can make use of them. And these scientists, now, and two hundred years ago, had no inkling of the importance of magnetism on living things.

Even today most scientists studying magnetism in industry, in astronomical observatories, and government laboratories do not realize the powerful influences that magnetic fields have on human behavior; they are mostly concerned about the possible effects of magnetic fields on communications instruments.

Former President Reagan had one of the satellites which was designed to study the Sun shot down for target practice! This was ironic indeed, since Solar activity appears to be one of the most salient factors in triggering wars.As you read these words, satellites are floating overhead measuring magnetic fields of Earth. For instance there satellites called GOES (Geosynchronous Orbiting Earth Satellites) which have provided continuous magnetometer data since July l971. Usually two GOES satellites operate simultaneously, but at this time there is only one. They float about 28,000 miles out in space, their speed exactly synchronized with Earth’s rotation rate so that they don’t appear to move at all. They are usually located at 75° and 135° west longitude. Their distance from Earth allows continuous day and night observation of the Sun.

The magnetic sensors on these satellites consist of a pair of little spinning coils. When a coil of wire moves in a magnetic field the electrons in the moving wires are pushed to and fro. Since they cannot escape from the wires, they produce what we call an electric current. This tiny current is detected by amplifiers in the satellite and the resultant voltages gives a continuous measure of the intensity of Earth’s magnetic field.

Apparently all the stars have magnetic fields, some of them are more than 1,000 times as strong as the Sun’s.It may be no coincidence that the stars known as PULSARS have strong magnetic fields and most of these PULSARS pulse at frequencies in the brainwave range from 4 to 30 Hz. Since we can detect magnetic fields with our instruments, perhaps people can detect them too. After all, we are the most complex, most sensitive, ‘machines’ around. (Dr. Buryl Payne, 2015)